Epithelial Cells in Urine

Epithelial cells help protect or enclose organs, according to an article in Medlineplus.com. They are found in the ureters, bladder and urethra; they are round or oval depending on the location such as renal pelvis and the bladder. When stretched though, they can appear flat.

These cells can appear in urine. High epithelial cells may cause concern because this can be an indication of inflammation, infections and even malignancies. Bladder infection can be a result of large amount of epithelial cells in the urine.

Further Reading: Squamous Epithelial Cells in Urine: Types, Test and Prevention

There are four main types of epithelial cells seen in urine. They also differ in ways such as larger size, smaller nuclei and irregular border or cells.

Renal tubular epithelial cells

This type is not common in urine. In contrast to the transitional epithelium, these cells are smaller and rounder. When a large growing statistics of cells set up in urine, it may be an indication of a kidney problem.

Neoplasia cells

TCC or transitional cell carcinoma, may bog the cells into the urine and can lead to hemorrhage while invading the bladder wall in most time.

Epithelial Cells in Urine Normal Range

The range: “few,” “moderate,” or “many” – per LPF. The normal range is less than 15-20 cells per HPF.


  • LPF: low power field
  • HPF: high power field

Other Substances in Urine Meaning

There are other substances that present in your urine sample.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

If RBCs found in urine, it indicates some health problems including inflammation in urinary tract or kidney disease. Otherwise, it can be just an indication of unclear urine sample or blood from menstruation or hemorrhoids. You may do the test twice.

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

If the amount of WBCs is high, it can indicate an infection in urinary tract.


A urinary tract infection can cause bacteria into your urine sample. If yeast is in urine for women, then it is yeast infection.


It’s abnormal if there are crystals like cysteine or leucine found in urine, kidney stone is a possibility although it can also be due to xray and some medications.


Red blood cell casts will indicate a glomeruli hitch and white blood cell casts will specify a kidney inflammation.