The benefits of deep space exploration are truly astronomical. As the human race continues rapidly growing, we will soon have no choice. Deep space is the next frontier, allowing for both our continued economic and population growth. Resources, as is space, are limited on Earth, and even our immediate solar system. Countless resources are to be found in space, along with the chance of finding potentially habitable planets or even alien species. Aside from these direct benefits of space exploration, there will be very large and beneficial indirect results as well. The space program has already helped earthbound humans tremendously. New technologies, jobs, resources, room and information would benefit all in at least some small way.
Humanity has always explored the world around them. It is human nature to explore and learn. Years ago, the ocean was nearly as dangerous to sailors as space to astronauts. If not for the bravery and inquisitiveness of our ancestors this would be a much different world. Discovery and exploration inevitably lead to expansion and innovation. The vastness and danger of space would almost certainly require a massive collective effort to truly be successful. Cooperation of various nations for a space program would also allow for better relations between countries.
Limited resources and territory are huge sources of conflict. The human population has been continually rising, causing even more conflict for these resources. Many economies are growing slowly if at all. The next logical step is space exploration, industrialization and colonization. Nothing can continue to grow in a confined area. Very little is currently known about space, and we need to learn more in order to utilize it. Even a small asteroid is worth potentially billions in resources.
Expansion into space would likely prolong the lifespan of the Earth. If humans stay on earth and continue to grow at the same rate, we will consume the Earths limited resources long before our Sun dies. Once the star in the center of our solar system dies, we would be lucky if mars was not destroyed as well. Humanity could even be wiped out as the dinosaurs were long before our home loses habitability. With colonies and astronauts in space a single calamity would not destory us and everything we know. Space is a frightening but magnificent place.
The benefits of exploration far outweigh the negatives. Once leaving the solar system, we may find another civilization by accident as Christopher Columbus or discover a revolutionary substance. The possibilities are endless in space.