How the Atomic Nuclues Works

“Nothing is too wonderful to be true if it be consistent with the laws of nature”

-Michael Faraday (1791 -1867) 

The Basics Concepts; 

A simple oscillator is something that changes or flips back and forth, and or, on and off repetitively, from one state of being to a different one and then back to the original state.  A complex oscillator is any oscillator that changes from one to any number of other states before returning to its original configuration.

A substance, at least in physical terms, can be an element, a compound or anything tangible, composed of matter (energy-mass).  It can also be the fabric of space-time itself.  All the material things in our existence, us included, are composed of matter in the form of atoms. 

   An atom is the most, minute indivisible particle of which, according to ancient Greek philosophical materialism, the universe is composed.  The original meaning of the word was indivisible.  We have learned so very much more in science about the nature of the realm in which we exist, since those ancient days when the term was originally coined.  The atom is so very small it would take about a million carbon atoms in line to span the diameter of a human hair.  

Nuclear Physics;  

Today we know that atoms are themselves composed of more primary units.  The present day Rutherford-Bohr atomic model consists of a primary core, called the nucleus, which is composed of positively charged protons and neutral (uncharged, electrically neutral) neutrons.  The centrally located nucleus, which occupies only about 1/10,000th the volume of the atom, is orbited by negatively charged electrons. It is similar, in a sense, to the way our earth and the other planets in our solar system orbit the sun.  The major difference is that electrons all have the same tiny mass and orbit randomly within various specific (quantum) energy levels and not within a plane as the planets do.  There is usually one negatively charged electron in orbit for every positively charged proton in the nucleus of an atom.  The positively charged proton, within the nucleus, is about 1860 times more massive than the negatively charged electron that orbits it.  Both these mass mismatched particles are of equal, but opposite charge magnitude.  The uncharged neutron component of the nucleus is slightly more massive than the positively charged proton. 

It has been assumed that electrons are primary particles, which cannot be further subdivided into component parts, but it has been discovered that the much larger protons and neutrons of the nucleus can.  This field of study is called nuclear physics.  The “Oscillator/Substance” model deals with nuclear physics, in an attempt to define the atomic components and mechanics of the atomic nucleus, as does the “Proton Cosmology, Fundamental Mechanics” and “Quark, Quantum Chromo-Dynamics ” hypotheses. 

The Oscillating Atom ; 

Over a century ago back in 1899, before Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus and nobody really knew what an atom was, Max Planck a pioneering physicist of the time proposed that the atom was a primary oscillator.  His hypothesis was based on work he had been doing on blackbody radiation, in an attempt to find out how heat was radiated.  Planck discovered that it was emitted in tiny specific, discrete amounts and not continuous flow, as it seems to be at our level of perception.  He called these tiny packets of energy “quanta”.  A primary oscillator would act quite nicely as a mechanism to account for the quantization of energy and or the fabric of space-time at the atomic level.  Planck’s oscillating atom model, however, was tested and failed.  

The Oscillating Proton;  

I’ m sure we all realize that electronics is the cornerstone of all our cutting edge technologies.  From everyday electrical appliances and computers, on which you read these words, to space satellites and robotic planetary rovers, none of it would be possible without employing the basic laws of electrodynamics.  There is no reason why these laws should not be valid for charged particles inside the nucleus of the atom.  Fundamental Mechanics is an oscillator/substance model.  It is based on the existing laws of electrodynamics, electronics and Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation. 

In the early 1970’s, Quark Theory was relatively well established, but no quarks or direct evidence of any had been found.  A film titled “The Hunting of the Quark”, [“Horizon”- Educational Scientific Series, written & produced by David Paterson, (1974) Time-Life] was aired on Public Television.  November 17, 1974 (NOVA), [Hunting of the Quark (The)] Smashing matter into ever smaller pieces in an attempt to find its fundamental building blocks has produced a confused nightmare of particles. NOVA looks at this on-again, off-again story, one of science’s most mysterious and, one of the most expensive, involving some of the biggest machines in the world.

Topic: Physics, “The Hunting of the Quark”.  A portion of this film described an exclusive reaction (electron-proton scattering experiment) that was done at the Stanford University Linear Accelerator and what was found when computer analysis was done with the data.  A program was run to search for any charge morphology or configuration on the proton. In the film, an animation was shown of a rapidly alternating charge pattern that was found, as the only symmetrical configuration to fit the scattering data. The animation represented the proton as a sphere with two counter spinning rings of intensifying positive charge, each rotating near the relative poles, in one state. In the alternate state, four point charges were shown equally displaced around the equator of the proton. 

The Changing Shape of Protons; 

These four point charges then began to simultaneously elongate into linear arc charges stretching out toward, and almost reaching the poles of the sphere. The film’s narrator stated that, “theorists could explain what might cause the ring charges to occur, but were unable to account for the four point, elongating into line-arc charges”. He also pointed out that this data, although intriguing, conflicted with some of the basic assumptions of “Quark Theory”.  Rendering of the [“Horizon”] films animation. Recent experimentation indicates that the proton has an electro-dynamic nature and various morphologies. “protons aren’t always shaped like a basketball” this recent finding seems to confirm the existence of the dynamic charge patterns described in that “Horizon” science film of 1974, predicted by computer.  ((Comparison))  Such charge patterns (inner) would result in the various proton morphologies (outer) being observed, as electrons deflected off them. 

Internal Structure of the Proton; 

To understand what is occurring within the proton, that causes the alternating charge patterns, visualize the proton as a hollow, thin shelled sphere of mass or space-time bubble.  Inside the sphere there are four identical, positively charged particles. These four particles are synchronously oscillating from near the proton’s center, almost to the containing shell, and back again. Their oscillation paths are equally spaced at ninety-degree intervals in the plane of the proton’s equator. For ease of illustration and to avoid confusion these particles will be referred to as ‘quadrons’ rather than quarks.      Synchronicity at the quantum level may seem counter-intuitive to the “Uncertainty Principle”, but is not precluded by it. 

Laws of Electrodynamics;  

It is known that when a charged particle, the electron for example, takes on a relative linear motion it generates a spinning electromagnetic field, (Here is a simple explanation for those who are unfamiliar about the properties of electricity).  Positive particle field spins rotate opposite to negative particle spins.  This field expands at right angles to the particle’s linear direction. Applying this field concept, and starting at the farthest points from the proton center, the four quadrons are pushed inward. They are repelled by their own charge fields, which are stored and mirrored in the containing energy-mass sphere. As the particles take on a relative linear motion they each radiate a spinning, obtuse, conical energy field at right angles to their respective motion. As these spinning energy fields expand outward, at the velocity of light, they encounter the proton shell and are deflected around and along its inner physical surface. As the particles progress inward, these four energy fields generated at an angle of 90 degrees to each other, expand and curve around the inner surface of the shell to meet each other adjacently at an angle of 180 degrees. It is known that when charge fields, of the same spin rotation, encounter each other at an angle of 180 degrees they join together. (Electromagnetic field coupling) This charge field coupling is what creates the two counter spinning charge rings around the proton poles. The double charge rings, that are formed, keep the four quadrons oscillating within a plane, preventing close packing. See Fig.3

The Role of the Quadron’s Linear Velocity; 

As the quadrons move inward toward the center of the proton their linear velocity begins to slow, due to the repulsive nature of their similar charges. This action causes the concentrated double ring charges, at the proton poles, to collapse back upon the four particles from which they were generated, in an effort to maintain the particle velocities (Self induction). However, the four quadron charge fields have been combined divided in half and rotated 90 degrees from the direction in which they were originally radiated. They are now in the form of two diametrical spinning rings of similar charge, focused upon a point at the center of the proton. The two charge rings collapse upon this point at the proton’s center, in a conical fashion due to economy of motion. It resembles an hourglass of charge caving in on itself at its center (Consider these formulas, the area of a circle, a = (pi) r^2, volumes: a cone, V = 1/3(pi) r^2 h, a sphere, V = 4/3 (pi) r^3.  In all these examples the ring charges collapse across their radii at the speed of light, thus, r = c. The area that the charge is compacted into mass would be reduced at V = 2(1/3(pi) c^2h, (r = c), thus (r^2=c^2), energy to mass conversion occurs by the M=E/C^2 ratio. Condensations of mass are created from energy and layered upon each other as the two rings collapse inward to form a new fifth particle at the center of the proton. Both ring charges being focused on the same central point predispose the newly created particle to be spherical. The hourglass shaped charge has collapsed inward to form a new particle. This particle will be called the “Universal Particle” or “U” particle. 

The U Particle; 

Within the proton we observe four positively charged particles gathered around a newly created fifth U particle, at the proton center. To enable this system, to keep oscillating, the charge on the new U particle would need to be positive. The five positive particles are in closer proximity to each other than they could be, under any other circumstances, at the same energy levels. The quadron particles are repelled by the like charge of the newly created fifth positive particle and each other’s similar charge. (Like or same type charges repel each other, unlike charges attract.) The four quadrons would be sprung outward away from the proton center, toward the containing spherical shell. As the four quadrons travel outward their rotating charge fields expand and adjacently encounter each other at an angle of 90 degrees.  Field coupling cannot occur as it did along the shell wall on the inward journey. The charge fields deflect each other adjacently where they meet, outward toward the proton shell at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the oscillation paths of the quadron particles. A map analogy would have the quadron oscillation paths at the North, south, east and west locations while the deflected charge fields would be at the Northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest positions. The charge fields, which travel at the velocity of light, lead the quadron particles outward toward the proton shell. When the deflected fields first encounter the proton shell they appear as four point charges equally displaced around the equator. These point charges expand into the linear arc charges as the four quadrons move closer to the proton shell and more of their deflected charge fields encounter it.  

Returning to the center of the proton we observe that the newly created fifth positive particle is emitting field, relative to the four outbound quadron particles. It is being stripped of field, as though the U particle is traveling in four directions at once. It would be anisotropically accelerated at the four points where the receding quadron fields met and deflected outward at the velocity of light and four points where it faced the quadron particles, resulting in quadra or octapoles. 

Defining Charge; 

Considering energy-mass as a spectrum, with mass at one end, energy at the other, and charged particles at various places in between, a statement can be made: Energy-mass which is changing in a direction toward mass, will have a positive charge; Energy-mass that is changing in a direction toward energy, will have a negative charge. The U particle is being relatively accelerated by the speed of light squared. Changing in a direction toward energy, the mass takes on a negative charge and explodes outward, being attracted to the four positively charged receding quadrons, as it is ripped apart in the process of mass being converted back to energy. (The point our Universe is at, given that size and time are infinitely relative). This is a plausible cause for the inflation hypothesis of the big bang cosmology and the “Big Bang itself.  If interested see:  

The four outbound quadron particles eventually come in close enough proximity to the proton shell to be repulsed by the reflection of their own charges. The central U particle has been completely converted to energy.  (Researchers have already found the “U” particle; they call it the “strange quark”, a negative particle that exists briefly inside the positively charged proton.  Its anti-quark particle is the positive U particle, when it first forms, after the two energy rings collapse.  Leinweber’s description in this article fits the particle perfectly.  

Collapse of the Arcs; 

The four quadrons begin to slow. The uncombined, deflected arcs of charge field, stored along the proton shell, split and collapse inward toward the respective particles from which they were radiated, approaching them from each side. (Self induction). This stops the outward movement and launches the quadrons back inward toward the proton center. The process begins again, the oscillations continue. The difference in velocity, between the oscillating sub-luminary (slower than light) quadron mass particles and the speed of light charge fields that they generate within the geometry of the proton sphere, maintains this perpetual oscillating motion.  A viable neutron model exists that compliments this oscillating proton hypothesis. 

Occam’s razor is a logical philosophical benchmark by which all scientific hypotheses are usually judged.  

Definition of OCCAM’S RAZOR:  a scientific and philosophic rule that entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily which is interpreted as requiring that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex or that explanations of unknown phenomena be sought first in terms of known quantities.  – Merriam-Webster Online – Dictionary and Thesaurus 

Everything tangible that exists in our universe can be described by mathematics, but everything that can be described by mathematics doesn’t necessarily exist in our universe.  

The Standard Model of nuclear physics called “Quark Theory” is a bootstrap hypothesis that is based on mathematical conjecture and supposition, not data.  QCD, {Quantum Chromo-Dynamics}, attempts to define the mechanism by which quarks interact to form the protons and neutrons of the nucleus.  Unfortunately, those of the QCD School of thought have been trying to discover a working mechanism for almost 50 years and they still have not found one.  Quark mathematics seems to lead them to postulate at least one, if not three, extra dimensional realities for the quark to work right, depending upon which particle physicist you ask.  They also espouse a new physical force in nature, called the force of “Color Confinement”. 

In the early 1980s, some particle colliders had reached the energy threshold that physicist predicted would allow quarks to be observed for the very first time ever, but after testing and searching as extensively as they could, no quarks could be found!  Eventually, a new basic force was hypothesized to account for this phenomenon called the, “Principle of Color Confinement”, a new, very odd, mysterious force that prevented single quarks from being observed singularly. They could only exist in pairs, as alleged in muons or in triplets, as alleged in the individual nucleons. This new assumed force is not inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects, like the electro-magnetic, gravitational and other forces of physics, where force strength gets weaker with distance. Color force is proposed to be like no other force in nature. It is directly proportional to the distance between objects; it gets stronger with distance, like a rubber band being stretched.  Besides holding the quarks together to form protons and neutrons, this convenient force also prevents quarks of differing charge polarities from annihilating each other as mediated by gluons, another assumed particle to substantiate an assumed force which works only at or below the observable level, inside the nuclei of atoms.  There is no proof of color confinement, other than they can’t seem to isolate and find any quarks.  Neither quantum mechanics nor quark theory can explain why energy and space-time is quantized at the atomic level.  Also neither can explain or attempts to even address the workings of gravity. 

The oscillating energy-mass proton model can explain quantization, and also how gravity is generated into space-time at the nuclear level. 

The oscillating energy-mass proton model of Fundamental Mechanics, the foundation of Proton Cosmology, can explain all the observed phenomena at both the nuclear and astrophysical scale in just the three dimensions of space and one of forward moving time that we can perceive, without the need of other hypothetical unseen and unproven dimensions or un-provable forces of physics.  It is a simple, understandable, hypothesis that employs the known laws of electrodynamics and Einstein’s special relativity, energy-mass ratio formula, to account for the structure and evolution of the Universal realm in which we find ourselves existing. 

“You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time.” 

-Abraham Lincoln, (attributed) 

Some sections of this article have been copied or modified from other articles I’ve published.