How Atoms Work

The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement.

But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.
-Niels Bohr – 1885 – 1962


In the early 1970’s, Quark Theory was relatively well established and generally accepted, but, no quarks or direct evidence of any had been found. A film titled “The Hunting of the Quark”, [“Horizon”- Educational Scientific Series, written & produced by David Paterson (1974), a former subsidiary of Time-Life], was produced. .

On November 17, 1974, (NOVA) first aired “The Hunting of the Quark” on public television

Smashing matter into ever smaller pieces in an attempt to find its fundamental building blocks has produced a confused nightmare of particles. NOVA looks at this on-again, off-again story, one of science’s most mysterious and, one of the most expensive, involving some of the biggest machines in the world. Original broadcast date: 11/17/74 Topic: physics “The Hunting of the Quark”. A portion of this film described an exclusive reaction (electron-proton scattering experiment) that was done at Stanford University and what was found when computer analysis was done with the data. A program was run to search for any charge morphology or configuration on the proton. In the film, an animation was shown of a rapidly alternating charge pattern that was found, as the only symmetrical configuration to fit the scattering data. The animation represented the proton as a sphere with two counter spinning rings of increasing positive charge, each rotating near the relative poles, in one state. In the alternate state, four point charges were shown equally displaced around the equator of the proton.

The Changing Shape of Protons;

These four point charges then began to simultaneously elongate into linear arc charges stretching out toward, and almost reaching the poles of the sphere. The film’s narrator stated that, “theorists could explain what might cause the ring charges to occur, but were unable to account for the four point, elongating into line-arc charges”. He also pointed out that this data, although intriguing did conflict with some of the basic assumptions of “Quark Theory”. ( Recent experimentation indicates that the proton has an electrodynamic nature and various morphologies. “Surprise to physicists, protons aren’t always shaped like a basketball”. ( These latest findings seem to confirm the existence of the dynamic charge patterns described in this hypothesis. ((Comparison)) ( Such charge patterns, (inner) would result in the various proton morphologies, (outer) being observed, deflected off them.

Internal Structure of the Proton;

To understand what is occurring within the proton, that causes the alternating charge patterns, visualize the proton as a hollow, thin shelled sphere or bubble of mass. Inside the sphere there are four identical, positively charged particles. These four particles are synchronously oscillating from near the proton’s center, almost to the containing shell, and back again. Their oscillation paths are equally spaced at ninety-degree intervals in the plane of the proton’s equator. For ease of illustration and to avoid confusion these particles will be referred to as ‘quadrons’ rather than quarks. Synchronicity at the quantum level may seem counter-intuitive to the “Uncertainty Principle”, but is not precluded by it. It is well documented that when a charged particle, the electron for example, takes on a relative linear motion it generates a spinning electromagnetic field. ( Positive particles field spins rotate opposite to negative particle spins. This field expands at right angles to the particle’s linear direction. Applying this field concept, and starting at the farthest points from the proton center, the four quadrons are pushed inward. They are repelled by their own charge fields, which are mirrored in the containing energy-mass sphere. As the particles take on a relative linear motion they each radiate a spinning, obtuse, conical energy field at right angles to their respective motion. As these spinning energy fields expand outward, at the velocity of light, they encounter the proton shell and are deflected around and along its inner physical surface. As the particles progress inward, these four energy fields generated at an angle of 90 degrees to each other, expand and curve around the inner surface of the shell to meet each other adjacently at an angle of 180 degrees. It is known that when charge fields, of the same spin direction, encounter each other at an angle of 180 degrees they join together. (Electromagnetic field coupling) This charge field coupling is what creates the two counter spinning charge rings around the proton poles. The double charge rings, that are formed, keep the four quadrons oscillating within a plane, preventing close packing. (Fig.#2), & (Fig.#3).

The Role of Quadron’s Linear Velocity;

As the quadrons move inward toward the center of the proton their linear velocity begins to slow, due to the repulsive nature of their similar charges. This action causes the concentrated double ring charges, at the proton poles, to collapse back upon the four particles from which they were generated, in an effort to maintain the particle velocities (Self induction). However, the four quadron charge fields have been combined, divided in half and rotated 90 degrees from the direction in which they were originally radiated. They are now in the form of two diametrical spinning rings of similar charge, focused upon a point at the center of the proton. The two charge rings collapse upon this point at the proton’s center, in a conical fashion due to economy of motion. It resembles an hourglass of charge caving in on itself at its center (Consider these formulas, the area of a circle, a = [pi]r(2), volumes: a cone, V = 1/3[pi]r(2)h., a sphere, V = 4/3 [pi] r(3). The ring charges collapse across their radii at the speed of light, thus, r = c. The area that the charge is compacted into mass would be reduced at V = 2(1/3[pi]c(2)h, (r2 = c2), energy to mass conversion occurs. Condensations of mass are created and layered upon each other as the two rings collapse inward to form a new fifth particle at the center of the proton. Both ring charges being focused on the same central point predispose the newly created particle to be spherical. The hourglass shaped charge has collapsed inward to form a new particle. This particle will be called the “Universal Particle” or “U” particle.

The U Particle;

Within the proton we observe four positively charged particles gathered around a newly created fifth U particle, at the proton center. To enable this system, to keep oscillating, the charge on the new U particle would need to be positive. The five positive particles are in closer proximity to each other than they could be, under any other circumstances, at the same energy levels. The quadron particles are repelled by the like charge of the newly created fifth positive particle and each others similar charge. (Like or same type charges repel each other, unlike charges attract.) The four quadrons would be sprung outward away from the proton center, toward the containing spherical shell. As the four quadrons travel outward their rotating charge fields expand and adjacently encounter each other at an angle of 90 degrees. Field coupling cannot occur as it did along the shell wall on the inward journey. The charge fields deflect each other adjacently where they meet, outward toward the proton shell at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the oscillation paths of the quadron particles. A map analogy would have the quadron oscillation paths at the North, south, east and west locations while the deflected charge fields would be at the Northeast, southeast, northwest and southwest positions. The charge fields, which travel at the velocity of light, lead the quadron particles outward toward the proton shell. When the deflected fields first encounter the proton shell they appear as four point charges equally displaced around the equator. These point charges expand into the linear arc charges as the four quadrons move closer to the proton shell and more of their deflected charge fields encounter it. Returning to the center of the proton we observe that the, newly created, fifth positive particle is emitting field relative to the oscillating particles. It is being stripped of field, as though the U particle is traveling in four directions at once. It would be anisotropically accelerated at the four points where the receding quadron fields met and deflected outward at the velocity of light and four points where it faced the quadron particles, resulting in quadra or octapoles on the U particle. The U particle has already been confirmed by particle physicist, only they call it the “strange quark”, , in an attempt to classify it in the faulty quark model.

Defining Charge;

Considering energy-mass as a spectrum, with mass at one end, energy at the other, and charged particles at various places in between, a statement can be made: Energy-mass which is changing in a direction toward mass, will have a positive charge; Energy-mass that is changing in a direction toward energy, will have a negative charge. The U particle is being relatively accelerated by the speed of light squared. Changing in a direction toward energy, the mass takes on a negative charge and explodes outward, being attracted to the four positively charged receding quadrons, as it is ripped apart in the process of mass being converted back to energy. (The point our Universe is at, given that size and time are infinitely relative). This is a plausible causal explanation for the inflation hypothesis of the big bang cosmology.

The four outbound quadron particles eventually come in close enough proximity to the proton shell to be repulsed by the reflection of their own charges. The central U particle has been completely converted to energy. The four quadrons begin to slow. The uncombined, deflected arcs of charge field, stored along the proton shell, split and collapse inward toward the respective particles from which they were radiated, approaching them from each side, (Self induction). This stops the outward movement and springs the quadrons back inward toward the proton center. The process begins again, the oscillations continue. The difference in velocity, between the oscillating sub-luminary (slower than light) quadron mass particles and the speed of light charge fields that they generate within the geometry of the proton sphere, maintains this perpetual motion.

The Neutron;

Addressing the neutron in conjunction with this proton model, that seems to address recent findings. see: . Under extreme temperatures and densities we observe that a high energy particle (electron, + neutrino, anti-neutrino?) in close proximity is attracted to and pulled through one of the protons spinning ring charges actually or by means of wave-particle duality. It is stopped in the center by the opposite polar spin ring. This energetic particle is trapped inside the proton and changed in a direction toward mass as the charge rings collapse inward upon it. It is incorporated into a larger, newly created fifth particle. This new positively charged U particle is too massive to be totally converted back to energy, as it would be in the proton. Its charge polarity, however, is changed, diminished as the four quadrons move away from it. It still exists as a massive diminished positive U particle, at the proton/neutron center, when the quadron particles reach the outer limits of their respective paths. The extra massive U particle draws the oscillating quadrons into a position of charge equilibrium, given charge field always moves at light speed, faster than the oscillating masses, particles oscillations come to a halt. The quadrons become static and slightly negative losing charge to the U particle on their last inbound journey, they’re held out away from the neutron’s center by the massive U particle and mutual repulsion. No charge field motion occurs across the inner surface of the containing shell. No charge can be detected from the outside. The proton has changed into a neutron, by capturing and transforming additional energy-mass, resulting in the creation of a more massive, less positively, charged, U particle, which causes quadron oscillations to cease. See: (

Strong Force;

The duel ring charges that are generated at the proton surface, as well as, the four alternate point expanding into arc charges would be attracted to the peripheral, static quadron particles, held out away from the center, near the periphery of any neutron in close enough proximity, attempting to induce motion in them by induction. The force of this induction is what bonds the proton and neutron together. The strong force, the attraction and need for free charge to induce motion in proximal static particles. The static quadrons in the neutron can be visualized as charged ball bearings, moving and shifting within the periphery of the neutron to best accommodate the interaction of changing charge fields on the surface of adjacent protons, in very close proximity.


The larger U particle in the neutron is usually positive, but could be negative or any combination of particles in between depending upon the circumstances when it is ejected from the neutron. During Beta-decay it is usually observed to be negative. The U particle is a dynamic particle inside all protons, constantly changing in mass-energy ratio and charge. The neutron has a more massive, charge diminished, semi-stable, positive, U particle existing in its center. It causes quadron oscillations to cease. No moving charges upon or across the surface of the containing shell or mass bubble is radiated by the static quadrons. This causes the neutron to appear neutral. The neutron acts as a dynamic, electromagnetic flywheel, coupling device to the proton. Stable elements larger than hydrogen do not exist without neutrons. The primary function of neutrons is to couple together protons to form the nuclei of larger elements. The static quadrons in the neutron being attracted by and to the alternating charge field morphologies on the surface of neighboring protons. The strong force is the need for free charge field to induce motion in proximal charged, static, sub luminary masses. (Nuclear Force)

“The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible.” -Albert Einstein

Sections or parts of this article have been taken and or modified from other a articles I’ve published.