Physical tensors for the sun and stars in general follow logical lines of extrapolation; yet such paradigms cannot be considered to be definitively mutually or exhaustive of all possible paradigms for the future history of our main sequence star.
Speculation regarding the future history of the sun usually follows standard plans upon the knowledge base of stellar synthesis. Main sequence stars such as ours have an existence that is fairly well understood, although their may be hidden dimensions to all mass-energy configurations such that apparent physical relationships may be impermanent. Physical laws of the Universe may have different values in various times, and the age and history of the sun could change suddenly too-the whole universe could have a phase shift and disappear any second or in a trillion trillion years. From the alleged quantum instability of a Higgs Field that allowed an inflation faster than light for a fraction of a second to balance math theory time interval accounts of the beginning of creation of the observable universe within a temporal field of space-time the incomplete logical paradigm for fundamental waveform quantum is obvious. Instability rather than stability seems to be a logical norm-as Heraclitus believed everything is in motion always and fundamentally. Is a complete oneness of a temporal field in motion that started as a zero dimensional idea guaranteed to have a pre-determined time span for stars, or is the time span and history of stars just a probability to count on, because the intervals of space-time require that kind of energy configuration for the time being?
The sun may be flung out of its position in the Galaxy by the approach of the Andromeda Galaxy .Like cue balls on a billiard table aboard a ship at sea stars of affected regions will experience chaotic shifts in position. Strange gravitational perturbations such as occur when thousands of stars collide and crash creating new massive black holes and different axis of evil tidings for living beings unable to evacuate the regions will become commonplace. The sun may be dissociated and torn apart perhaps exploding yet stream in to sundry gravitational attraction fields of approaching stellar concatenated massifs. Collision is expected to occur in just three billion years-yet before then the realignment of Milky Way gravitational forces and orbital stability will be altered very likely with devastating effects for our favorite star.
Yet our favorite star may be stolen by extra-terrestrials with a need to fuel a space-ship, insinuated into extra-dimensional space-time and used to power a warping of relativistic space-time geometry in order to create a faster-than-light ‘waterslide’ to another galaxy with virtual particle catapulting of sub-Planck length interfacing ship components or otherwise subjected to re-engineering. It may also become blood red or warped like a Dalian super-real painting if the four dimensions of space-time are super-naturally wrapped up…its hard to be certain. By normal standards the sun should keep on ticking for some time from fusion source to fusion source.
The sun may last ten billion years. Six billion degrees of heat in the sun is warm although cooled down considerably from the less than a second after the inflaton ended phase of the Universe with its 10 to the 27th or 10 to the 28th Kelvin temperature.
The sun is more likely to be extinguished through anthropogenic climate change than through a natural evolution. It is a tempting ball of gas to global and interplanetary business interests I would think that will be ‘managed’ as a resource in time. With the sun just sitting there in space rotating around what can be considered the galaxy’s habitation zone and the next star 4 light years away the control of it for political purposes will become environmentally attractive. Human space and scientific technology will probably increase far more quickly than the natural life cycle of the sun brings it’s end. Few waterways that can generate electricity have been left undammed, and few stars that can be exploited are likely to be left simply burning away in stellar silence.
The sun is 26,000 light years from the center of the galaxy and takes about a quarter billion years to complete one galactic orbit.
The sun is a sort of farther down the line running out of warmth stage of the Universe’s past and future course to cool (unless it returns to crunch). One day all these bright stars will fade away to darkness and cold…enjoy it while it and you last!
The solar nuclei niche is a nice place for nuclear fusion to happen. Matter in the universe is a rare leftover of one of two positive and negative particles escaping from virtual reality in the first seconds of the universe. The universe of space-time hasn’t got a charge but is perfectly electrically balanced at neutral. Whenever a virtual particle appears and oppositely charged one does also, yet early on at higher temperatures some of these anti-particles had a symmetry break and went off on their own to become the lost quarks of the universe. The ancient lost quarks got involved interacting with subsequent virtual particles and to this day their is this reservoir of matter that is just a tiny bit of primordial left over fluke energy left to become mass. At lower temperatures mass is never destroyed and energy never is imbalanced to positive or negative over the entire universe.
The sun has a lot of potential, I will write so more basic ideas about it later yet for now I will note that future astrophysicists may find the sun a malleable energy and matter source useful for quite a few things. it might be possible to shape galactic travel routes by moving things around to curve space-time usefully and roll the sun along the bowling gutter to another part of the galaxy, or alternatively focus various solar fields from other stars in intergalactic particle beams to add mass to space time and curve it to create a vast potential energy accelerator field when the beam is shut off and space-time ‘snaps-back’ like a slingshot tossing a star and people clinging along in some way perhaps in space-ships to it’s gravitational field along with it at high speed elsewhere. The potential for star-throwing isn’t perhaps very well explored presently yet some researcher may get to it eventually.
Condensing from a solar nebula of gas the sun retained more than 99% of the mass of the system with the more familiar planets, moons, asteroids comets and other debris comprising the rest. This main sequence star is in mid-life of its multi-billion year existence burning in nuclear fusion.
It would be good to use humor and just summarize this journey such as ‘the sun will go out one night with a Mrs. Nemesis approaching in interstellar space as a brown dwarf. Together they will tear up the solar system wildly flinging the gas giants ‘over the ropes’ for-themselves beyond the Kuiper belt. Intoxicated with one another they shall entangle themselves permanently in the fast embrace of the stellar tango aka ‘The Last Tango In Pair Is’ in which gravity will make them rotate faster and faster until they collapse and join dazzlingly together’, yet that would be more of a metaphor than science usually permits so thus we turn to the dread future of solar warming of the Earth burning it to a crisp along with anyone silly enough to remain here.
Just 4.99 billion years from know the sun will expand as a red giant to engulf the Earth in it’s heated embrace and burn away concerns about pollution unless scientists develop some sort of photon negotiating technology capable of channeling the sun’s output of photon’s.
The sun will burn up all of it’s core’s hydrogen producing helium through fusion. The sun will be nominally enhanced into a red giant and some hydrogen around the helium core will burns before eventually the helium core itself jumps into fusion.
Burning of elements in the core yielding a new dominant molecule develops until the sun eventually loses its gaseous outer layers and subsides into a cool white dwarf at 10,000 degrees f. This chic white dwarf transitions into a lowest energy state black dwarf with a mystery all of its own.
It is useful to consider a paradigm called ‘The Five Ages of the Universe’ named by Fred Adams and Greg Laughlin in their. In the evolution of the Universe this is the stelliferous era (an era with stars).
Stars in the Milky Way Galaxy will still exist in ten trillion years, in the ten to the thirteenth power cosmological decade. In the ten to the 14th power cosmological decade all of the fuel of all the stars of the galaxy will have been burned up and it will be a dark place unless perhaps recharged by a Superior Intelligence.
White dwarfs produce ‘about a quadrillion watts’. In the degenerate era following the stelliferous era white dwarfs may collide with brown dwarfs, some supernovas may follow, yet all of these actions are at a net higher level of entropy compared to the stelliferous era
White dwarfs can accumulate dark energy. This article on the five ages of the universe reports that white dwarfs will be ‘the dominant energy form’ at least in the early part of the degenerate era. Humanity will be probably dismissed to eternity in one way or another quite a while before then.
Energy output for inhabited areas of the future may be accomplished through use of virtual particles, reinterpreting the magnetic field of the sun and exploiting it to share it’s output in limited and directed fields, extremely efficient conservation, adaptation of biological life to more directly interpret the energy output of scalar fields, adaptation of super-conducting fields and coherent light flumery to interstellar space or a number of other means; it is interesting to speculate about the future relationship humanity could have to a solitary star in space if it does not destroy itself as it may have all other rival hominids.