The Structure of Dna

A German biochemist by the name of Frederich Miescher is credited with the discovery of DNA in the late 1800’s (Freeman, 2008). This discovery would lead to many new avenues for science to explore exactly how life began, where human and other life comes from and how all nature is connected.

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a chemical found the nucleus of the cell that carries the genetic instructions for every living organism. The first step is for the enzymes to read the information in a DNA molecule the largest of these molecules called polymer (Griskey, 1997-2008). Polymers exist in every living thing. Polymers contain one strand that repeats itself this is what is known as homopolymers. Other units called copolymers are formed and repeat in several types of units.

The message sent to a molecule called ribonucleic acid, or RNA this is what instructs the DNA to begin. The DNA molecule is made up of a phosphate group, sugar group and four different types of nitrogen’s, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine or ATGC. Altogether three strands make up DNA. The order in which the ATGC’s are strung together will tell if one will be tall, short, eye color along with many other characteristics in humans. This works the same in all living plants and animal.

In sexual reproduction, the male carries half of the nuclear DNA. The female will produce the mitochondrion that is needed to start the process of life and is contained within DNA. Cells begin to split into exact replicas of one another. Eventually the cells will continue to separate and form their own genetic signature. This is where the variation of inherited traits will come together to form two into one living being.

Soon the DNA is instructed produce certain functions. Therefore, the Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is switched on to create what makes each species and individual unique to itself. The structure of DNA is the signature of what living organisms, plants and animals become. A complete DNA form is referred to as a genome. For a species, each donator including humans will combine to allow the same characteristics to be a part of their own species and characteristics. All living things have DNA that is passed to create the strongest reproduction possible.

Meiosis can be asexual as the cells divide they will produce identical reproductions of a species. Meiosis is also sexual meaning the traits of both male, female donors will be joined, and both will create a combination of the male and female genes to form their own DNA. (2008). A second meiotic division that is known as the sister chromatins of each chromosome separate will migrate to different daughter cells that will produce four gametes.

Now with the genetic make up of both male and female, cells that switch on to create the particular organs, features that the growing fetus or organism will develop into at birth. DNA in humans is inherited from the genes passed on from parents, and their ancestors. Some believe behavioral traits are inherited through DNA. Still others do not accept the theories of inherited behavioral traits can be passed from DNA. Considering so many traits are contained in DNA, it would be logical that traits can be passed through DNA. For example, the way one walks or holds one’s mouth could also be passed onto the next generation through the genes of his or her parents. Science has proof that every part of life has characteristics to pass on to the next generation. Furthermore, evidence suggests all things evolve over time and continue to evolve to adapt to the ever-changing environment (Campbell, 2006).

This should prove all living things come from a specific culture, family, or organism Perhaps even as far back as the smallest form of life. Although, many may dispute that fact, scientists are able to trace life of all types of having some common genes. Meaning every living thing is somehow related. This is heavily disputed in the ongoing creationism and evolution debate.

According to Mendel’s Laws (Allen, 1997-2008) Mendel who concentrated on plant life only, yet, he understood the inheritance gene from his work with the breeding of pea’s in his garden. He experimented with crossbreeding to show that he could manipulate the form of the pea to grow taller, larger, and smaller and other create other characteristics. Mendel knowing that gene’s held the key to all living things, if he were to blend the genes of a dwarf with a tall person, he would change the structure and one or the other gene would be dominate. It took Mendel a few generations of peas cross-breeding to prove his point yet he was able to do so, he was ahead of his time, eventually other scientific minds would understand the process he was trying to explain.


Though the debate of evolution and creationism will continue throughout time, the evidence that Darwin, Mendel, and others have made connections through DNA that is undeniable. The complexities of all life extinct and alive are slowly becoming less of a mystery to man. For that reason Darwin, Mendel’s, Lamarck and others who searched for answers as to how Earth and life began are given credit for opening the door to a new world of science.


Allen, Garland E. M.A., M.A.T., Ph.D., Encarta, (1997-2008), Mendel’s Law,
Retrieved June 20, 2008
Campbell, Reece, Simon, (2006) Essential Biology and Physiology Second Edition,
Discovery Channel clips, Chapters 13-17
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), (May 1, 2008) Nation Human Genome Research Institute,
Retrieved June 19, 2008
Freeman, W. H. & Co., and Sumanas,(2008) The Science of Biology, Eighth Edition.
Retrieved June 20, 2008
Griskey, Richard, G, M.S., Ph.D., Encarta, (1993-2008) Polymer, Retrieved June 21, 2008