There has been a battle of models on the subject of light since the 1600s. (Actually, for much longer. The ancient Romans believed the ‘eyes’ shot out beams of light.) The currently popular photon model has been in use for a hundred years, but has failed to produce any new technologies and is rapidly becoming dysfunctional. A new ‘field theory’ (the Ultra-Space Field Theory) has been developed, which provides a new model for light as electromagnetic (EM) waves. (Even Albert Einstein recognized the need for an all-encompassing field theory, and he attempted develop one in his later years, but lacked the information and research available today. Also, he essentially shot himself in the foot, long-term, by dismissing the ‘aether/EM field’ as unnecessary.)
In the liberal 1960s and 70s there was a great deal written about the dual wave/particle nature of the universe. The popular theme in these writings described choosing the model which best provided answers to your questions. Straight line, kinetic energy formulas worked well for photons, experiments involving interference or redshifting worked well for wave experiments. (The model of light as transverse waves is not normally applied to these experiments, and is generally ignored.) Around this same time, the concept of an electromagnetic field was dropped from academic institutions, and light as waves no longer required a medium for transport.
In approximately the 1980s, it became unfashionable and politically incorrect to describe light as waves. From a rational perspective, physics can only support one of these models and electromagnetic waves lacked an acceptable medium of transport. The aether/EM field would block photons, or provide resistance to slow their speed. The preference of photons was an academic decision. The photon model is simpler and easier to teach. At one point in time, it was also more creative.
Consider the photon as a dysfunctional model. The photon is mystically described as a massless, chargeless particle, which exists only while traveling at the speed of light. The evidence used to support the concept of photons is primarily an issue of interpretation. The only ‘hard’ evidence supporting the photon model is the observation of moving electrons after a material has has absorbed light. From this evidence, a particle theory was developed, with photons striking electrons in the same way a cue ball strikes a billiard ball. The photon has two basic characteristics. One, is that it is capable of striking electrons and forcing them to move. The other is the one true strength of the photon, which allows mathematicians to use fairly simple, straight-line equations in making predictions. On the other hand, the photon model fails to explain a number of characteristics normally attributed to light. It provides no explanation for polarized light, the frequency of pulses found within light, the spectrum of frequencies, interference patterns, the Doppler effect (redshifting and blueshifting), reflection, or refraction. Ask yourself how a massless, chargeless particle can display these characteristics. Photon researchers are consistently forced to describe their experiments in the terminology of the discarded electromagnetic waves, such as frequency and redshifting, because the photon model has no explanation for these behaviors.
In 1814, Augustin Jean Fresnel performed experiments using two tourmaline crystals, which suggested light waves are transverse (up/down) in nature. The image of a wave travelling along a length of string is a common analogy. When the axes of the crystals are in parallel (properly aligned), light will pass through both. When the second crystal is rotated to a 90 degree angle, the light becomes blocked. The analogy of transverse waves passing through slits was used as an explanation. If the slits’ of both crystals were aligned, the wave passed through both. If the slits’ of the second crystal were placed at a right angle, the up-down wave was blocked.
This misinterpretation of the evidence (from 1814) led to the eventual downfall the electromagnetic wave model. It became dysfunctional, a mathematicians nightmare, and eventually led to the aether, the theoretical supporting medium of the electromagnetic field, being dismissed as unnecessary, by Einstein. Dismissing the aether had the secondary effect of dismissing the electromagnetic field. The official rationalization for dismissing the aether/electromagnetic field, was the Michelson-Morley experiment, performed in 1887.
By 1887, the projection of light as transverse waves led to the aether being described as an unmoving grid work, capable of transporting vibrations (light), while solid matter (planets, stars, people) oozed through the grid work without noticing its existence. Solids can transport transverse waves, while fluids cannot. It is easy to understand why people questioned this convoluted model of the aether.
The Michelson-Morley experiment was not flawed. Its interpretation and usage were flawed. Michelson and Morley discovered that no matter which direction starlight was coming from, it always traveled at the same speed. If a motorcyclist is traveling into oncoming wind, to the motorcyclist, the air seems to be moving faster than if she were standing still in the same wind. They expected the same thing to happen with light as the Earth moved through space. It didn’t. Light was measured to be traveling at the same speed, regardless of which direction the light was coming from, relative to the Earth.
The Ultra-Space Field Theory explains this phenomenon as the result of thermon compression. The Earth is carrying around its own thermal field, with thermons becoming more compressed and anchored as they near the center of the Earth. The end result is that, unlike the unmoving, imaginary grid work all matter was forced to pass through with the aether model, light will always travel at the same speed as it enters the Earth’s atmosphere.
Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity was used as an explanation for Michelson and Morley’s finding. Essentially, he stated the faster one travels, the slower time moves. Using the motorcyclist analogy, regardless of how fast she went, the wind would seem to be a consistent speed, because time would be adjusting to compensate for her speed. Einstein proved this mathematically, but there is no ‘hard’ evidence to support his theory. (There have been some iffy experiments with beta radiation and high speed airplanes, but these fail to take into account resistance from the Earth’s magnetic field, which normally slows down moving electrons due to resistance.)
A mathematical equation requires a framework, a form of limitations. Einstein chose the speed of light as a limit for his Special Theory of Relativity and described time as flexible. This had disastrous results and has created the belief among many that will never travel to the stars. Faster-than-light travel is still taught as impossible, in spite of several experiments showing it is possible. (Search Cerenkov radiation and the Middle Tennessee State University’s experiments with ‘electric signals.)
The political usage of the Michelson-Morley experiment is riddled with flaws. Consider that a single experiment was used to invalidate a highly functional model, which had taken a wrong turn. This is similar to turning on a light with a burned out bulb, and assuming the entire house needs to be rewired with new technology that ultimately doesn’t work.
In 1900, Max Planck worked on experiments supporting the electromagnetic field. He had discovered light was passed along in small units (wavelets) which he called quanta and theorized the quantum energy was passed along by subatomic oscillators (thermons). Albert Einstein was a Newtonian at heart (Isaac Newton had advanced our understanding of gravity and believed light was made up of ‘corpuscles’, the historical equivalent of photons), and chose to translate Planck’s work to mean these quanta were massless, chargeless particles which exist only while traveling at the speed of light. He succeeded in supporting Newton, and in saving his Special Theory of Relativity, which required a universe free from aether.
This new field theory describes light as compression waves passing through an electromagnetic (EM) field. At the ultra-subatomic level, the EM field is made up of joined electron/positrons, called thermons. The joined electron/positron relationship is one of contraction. The electrical compression at the center of the thermon generates a magnetic field, while the resulting contraction of surrounding space produces a gravity field. Each thermon passes a portion (wavelet/quanta) of the larger overall EM wave outward to the next surrounding layer of thermons.
The Doppler effect and interference patterns are two of several phenomena shared by both light and sound waves. The shared behavioral characteristics of light and sound provides further support for the concept of light as compression waves.
When visualizing the thermon, imagine the positron and electron as two connected half spheres (east and west, per the East-West Geomagnetic effect). A north/south tunnel runs through its center, which expands into a magnetic field surrounding the thermon. As thermons contract in on themselves, they become significantly smaller than either the electron or positron, and can be described as ultra-subatomic.
In empty space thermons have incredible freedom of movement. Near an atom, or a larger gravity field, they have much less freedom of movement and can be bound to the gravitational source, particularly in solid matter. Electric and magnetic influences also play a role in binding thermons. The thermon’s EM field acts as a repulsive barrier, keeping them separated from one another from another.
Supporting evidence for this model includes:
dark matter (with thermons providing the gravity)
pair joining (pair annihilation)
pair separation (pair production)
the frequency of pulses found within light
the spectrum of frequencies
the Doppler effect (redshifting and blueshifting)
Max Planck’s original quantum experiments (with thermons representing Planck’s oscillators)
High frequency EM waves pulse more times per second, over the same distance, than will low frequency waves. Thermons effected by EM waves compress at regular intervals and this can range from a slow process, as with microwaves, to a fast process, as with gamma rays. Thermons can trasmit multiple frequencies ‘nearly’ simultaneously, and from varying directions. Simultaneous transmission produces interference. Higher frequencies spread less and maintain more intensity over greater distances. This suggests the thermon is not allowed time to resume a spherical shape, and is passing along wavelets flatter than those produced by lower frequencies.
In empty space, the electromagnetic field is rarified. Within matter, it is much denser and light will travel more slowly. Different types of matter will have varying degrees of density. The speed of light changes as it passes from one thermal field to another. Its wavelength changes, but its frequency does not. For example, when light passes from air to glass, its wavelength shrinks, but the number of pulses per second remains the same. Because the speed of light also changes with the medium it is passing through, the equation wavelength x frequency = speed of light’ remains consistent. Individual thermons are more compressed in the area surrounding the atoms and the space between them, slowing the quanta’s compression process.
The frequencies of EM waves known to interact with matter range from low frequency AM radio waves to high frequency gamma rays. The highest frequency detectable by man-made instruments is approximately 3 EHz. EM waves interact more consistently and more intensely with matter in the mid-range better known as infrared and visible light. Wave frequencies below the range of 30 kHz and beyond 3 EHz may extend to infinity, but are undetectable by current matter’ based technologies. There is no reason to assume frequencies do not exist beyond the known ranges simply because we are unable to detect them.
All solid matter carries an electric field which behaves as a solid surface at the macroscopic level. This electric surface field pulses at speeds equivalent to those of light, with its frequencies determined by elements making up the matter, and by its temperature. Its frequency dictates whether light is reflected or allowed to pass through. Metals, such as iron and aluminum, tend to absorb most EM frequencies after they have passed through the electric surface field, resulting in a gray coloring. The frequency of gold’s electric field reflects the color yellow, but allows other frequencies through, where they are absorbed. Transparent objects allow visible EM pulses to pass through without being absorbed.
Matter which is not pure white or transparent is absorbing visible light (and its quantum energy). The quantum energy shifts the thermons, transferring kinetic energy and creating heat. If an object is green (approx. 527 nm wavelength), then that frequency is being reflected while all other visible frequencies are being absorbed. The color black is an absence of visible light. A black object is not reflecting visible light, though it will be radiating invisible infrared light. Whether the object is made of a black material or simply coated with a black paint makes no difference. The pigment of the paint acts to absorb the visible light and transform it into heat. Absorption takes place after light has entered the thermal field. The light, or quantum energy, is absorbed in totality by the thermal field, most often as it approaches an atom or molecule, shifting and rearranging the condensed thermons. As an EM wave approaches an atom, the thermal field becomes denser. (Thermons become smaller and collect more densely around gravity fields. In this case the source of gravity is a molecule, but the model also provides a platform for large-scale gravitational lensing.) The wave is funneled, or condensed, toward the gravity core, as the EM wavelets become smaller and more intense. (As they become more intense, they are able to shift electrons from their outer orbits, initiating electrical current per the photoelectric effect.)
Transparent matter has a surface electric field which allows certain light frequencies (specifically, visible light) to pass through. Additionally, the internal molecules are spaced far enough apart so as not to absorb most of the frequency pulsations. The denser the thermal field of the material (per gravmagnetic influence from the atomic cores), the more slowly the EM waves pass through. EM frequency is also a factor, with higher frequencies traveling slower than lower, less energetic frequencies. This variation in speed, based on frequency, results in dispersion and refraction (the rainbow effect displayed by prisms).
Christian Huygens first worked with polarized light in the 1690s. Experimenting with crystals (Iceland spar, also known as calcite), he found aiming a beam of light through one of these crystals separated it into two beams of equal intensity (unless the light was sent directly through its crystallographic axis). Further experiments showed if one of these beams were aimed through a second crystal, it, also, would divide into two beams of equal or unequal intensity, or not separate at all, depending on the orientation of the second crystal. From these experiments he first determined the polarization abilities of light.
A large piece of Iceland spar contains several divisions, each with its own surface electric field. Crystals can be split along these faceted surfaces. Light enters the thermal (EM) field of Iceland spar, but upon entry is separated into two beams. One beam of light is the result of internal reflection’ and is channeled through the molecular corridors. This reflected beam is polarized. The remaining, unchanneled beam is not repelled by internal electric fields and continues along its original path through the Iceland spar.
The channeled beam follows the path of the molecular corridors, as demonstrated by a simple rotation experiment. As the crystal rotates, the channeled beam is rotated with the crystal and continues to exit from the same location on the surface of the crystal. The unchanneled beam continues in a straight line path, unaffected by the rotation of the crystal. Crystal polarization is actually a form of reflective polarization, but the reflection takes place inside the crystal instead of on its surface. This model predicts the thermons within the channels have a uniform north-south, east-west polarization.
The characteristics of polarization are then transferred with the EM pulses, polarizing loose thermons as they pass through, until interference weakens the polarization process. The thermons, and the wavelets/quanta they pass on, gradually become chaotic and unpolarized. The model of polarized thermons transporting EM pulses effectively replaces the model transverse waves, and makes the electromagnetic field a highly functional model.
I personally believe the Ultra-Space Field Theory provides a far more comprehensive model then the current ‘Standard Model’ which supports photons. It provides functional visual imagery and can explain concepts, such as the Peltier effect, interference patterns, dark matter, faster-than-light travel, Cerenkov radiation etc. It has incredible potential for new technologies. It also opens the door to more efficient thermon splitting (pair production), in turn allowing for positron production and new methods of producing electricity.