In 1900, Max Planck discovered light could be broken down into units of energy, called quanta, which he explained by using a model of electromagnetic waves passing through ‘oscillators’. ‘Planck’s Constant’ (h in the equation E = nhf) is used to predict the amount of light/quantum energy moving through a determined amount of space. Planck theorized this energy was transported in small parcels passed along through an underlying foundation of subatomic oscillators.
He used a black box to measure the amount of infrared light emitted inside the box. From this, he developed an equation predicting the number of quanta radiated by an object, using only its temperature (or EM frequency). In his equation, Max Planck used ‘n’ to represent the number of quanta at any given instant (the space). ‘f’ represents the frequency of the electromagnetic waves (sometimes ‘v’ is used). ‘h’ represents Plank’s oscillators, a physical subatomic entity. (A modern day field theory calls his oscillators ‘thermons’, describing them as joined electron/positron pairs, each of which generates a magnetic field and lays the foundation of the electromagnetic field which transports light.)
The development of Planck’s model was stopped abruptly due to a change in models by the physics community. In 1905, Einstein, who had worked briefly with Max Planck, translated his observations to mean light was made up of massless, chargeless particles traveling through empty space, further weakening the unpopular aether theory model. In 1916, continuing his attack on the aether theory, Einstein published his General Theory of Relativity, which completely excluded electromagnetic phenomenon, focusing only on gravitational effects and velocity. This, combined with the confusion caused by describing light as ‘transverse waves,’ effectively closed the door on electromagnetic field research.
Albert Einstein interpreted the quanta to be massless, chargeless particles, providing a simplistic mathematical model. (This interpretation of his experiments completely infuriated Planck, and he never forgave Einstein.) The name quanta was later changed to “photons,” relating it to the new technology of the time, photography, and as an effort to establish photons as particles, rather than EM waves. The name Quantum Theory’, however, remained. Quantum physics is the study of energy, atomic and subatomic entities, and their interactions.
In closing, it should be noted that in over one hundred years of use, the photon model has produced no new inventions or technologies. Is it possible the physics community has projected an illusion onto reality for mathematical ease? There is a surprising amount of evidence against photons, and very little nonmathematical evidence supporting their existence. Did we drop Planck’s model prematurely?