Summary: Evolution in the midst of geologic unrest is no more possible than stuffing pea pods with mountain tops. As strange beginnings and unrest is all the world has ever known. In illustration, I will reference the work of Frank D. Stacey (University of Queensland), NASA, and the work of Georges Cuvier (professor, French National Museum of Natural History). These works will demonstrate a world so dynamic and different from the one modernly proposed – that they stare down in disbelief at arguments of the statically configured and slowly drifting continents that evolution theory is so heavily dependent. Hence it cannot be said that evolution of life on earth is a fact substantiated.
Physics of the Earth
“Physics of the Earth,” by Frank D. Stacey was published in 1969 (note 1). Therein is the physics and the chemistry for a world that has been largely kept from view. Backed by confirming research, the earth and the moon are described as having been formed together as a double planet (p 39, note 3) by the process of accretion (p 18)
Hence it is that with little exception, we find that the earth and the moon are of the same chemical composition (note 2). Both with water, both with an iron core and magnetic fields (the moon’s “past magnetic field” having been discovered from lunar rocks (notes 3 and 4).
As time progressed (following from the conservation of angular momentum), the moon’s orbital radius slowly increased (p 37, note 5). This increase is of great scientific interest and it is constantly monitored (in association with NASA) by the University of Texas McDonald Laser Ranging Station using laser stations placed on the moon by Apollo astronauts (note 6)
Angular Momentum and a World in Unrest
Exchanges of angular momentum are never without consequence. In this instance, and in order for the moon’s orbital radius to increase, the moon must accelerate and the earth’s daily rate of rotation must slow in response. And though the magnitude of the physical reactions within the earth and the moon from these exchanges have never been measured, one still must ask, “How can they be anything but consequential?” Should there be a large and sudden exchange of angular momentum, brought on by earthquake as suggested by NASA, for instances, (notes 7 and 8), the consequence should leave physical evidence. If work hasn’t already been done – this needs investigation.
In testimony (though speculative as to cause, but still needing of explanation) there are unexplained fields of lava of immense size around the world. One such, with lava hundreds of feet thick in a region called the Columbia Plateau, covers the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the United States. There are lava floods in India known as the Deccan Traps, and another twice the size of Alaska and over 25 miles thick called the Ontong Java Plateau that lies on the ocean floor near the Solomon islands. Similar fields are found in Siberia and elsewhere, and across much of it lies the undisguised evidence of glacial scouring.
Were these lava fields the result of a sudden earthquake and the resultant reaction to an angular momentum exchange between the earth and the moon? Without research we’ll never know, but it is a matter of record that the 9.1 earthquake off the west coast of the Indonesian Island of Sumatra on December 26, 2004, later upgraded to 9.3, (note 9) changed the earth’s rate of rotation. That same event left a lava healed scar on the ocean floor estimated to be 621 miles long (1,000 km) – (notes 10 and 11).
History of Geology
Two publications, the “History of Geology,” and an “Essay on the theory of the earth,” and both recognized for their scientific merit, were written by Georges Cuvier, (1769-1832). Their significance stems from exhaustive personal and referenced research that in turn provides a startlingly different picture of the earth and it’s physical and biological history than one finds modernly (notes 12, 13 and 14).
On study, one finds Cuvier’s history of the earth (with details of fossil bearing strata at all altitudes and depths) to be verifiable and lastingly accurate. It cannot be said, therefore, that new research would find the strata suddenly clean, and Cuvier’s findings invalid.
(See the University of California Museum of Paleontology’s avid assessment of the scientific merit of Cuvier’s work, note 15).
In the “Essay on the theory of the earth” Cuvier wrote of changing sea beds and strata fractured in a thousand ways in demonstration of a geological scene of total unrest
1) “It has demonstrated that all rivers are continually elevating the levels of their beds, and that the sea has changed its place” (p 65) – (author’s note :: it follows that modern geography is a questionable reflection of the past)
2) “If there is any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is that the crust of our globe has been subjected to great and sudden revolutions” (p 79)
3) “The lowest and most level parts of the earth, when penetrated to a very great depth, exhibit horizontal strata of various substances, and containing innumerable marine productions. Similar strata, with the same kind of productions, compose the hills even to a great height. They are almost everywhere in such a perfect state of preservation, that even the smallest of them retain their most delicate parts, their sharpest ridges, and their finest and tenderest processes” (p 4 ).
4) “Thus the sea, previous to the formation of the horizontal strata, had formed others, which, by some means, have been broken, lifted up, and overturned in a thousand ways” (p 6) .
5) “(marine productions) are found in elevations far above the level of every part of the ocean, and in places to which the sea could not be conveyed by any existing cause. They are not only enclosed in loose sand, but are often encrusted and penetrated on all sides by the hardest stones. Every part of the earth, every hemisphere, every continent, every island of any size, exhibits the same phenomenon. We are therefore forcibly led to believe, not only that the sea has at one period or another covered all our plains, but that it must have remained there for a long time, and in a state of tranquility; which circumstance was necessary for tile formation of deposits so extensive, so thick, in part so solid, and containing exuvi so perfectly preserved” (p 4 ).
While not attempting to define evolution, it can generally be said that the theory is based on certain basic mechanisms: natural selection, mutation, migration, and genetic drift. All of which require time for the mechanism to follow its natural course. Further it may be said:
1) All living things are related to one another to varying degrees through common decent
2) Over time all organisms adapt to their environments.
3) New species result from random heritable genetic mutations (note 16)
So while it is said by some that evolution of life on earth is a fact substantiated by thousands of scientists (note 17). It remains to be proven that evolution and the time dependent processes of random heritable genetic mutations and adaptations can survive a world where unrest is the larger percentage of the passage of time.
Time is what evolution theory demands!
But the physics of the earth, and the history of geology, stand squarely in the way, thus denying evolution the availability of time!
Hence we must conclude that evolution is not fact substantiated – as the geologically dependent tenets fail outright under even modest scrutiny.
Epilogue – Pebbles
Pebbles were once larger rock, and rock was once mountain, and mountain was once ocean bottom. Pebbles (some with imbedded fossil) are everywhere, small rounded examples of the rock from which they came, and they came from every type of rock that ever was.
William Buckland, a geologist, born in Trusham in Devon, England on March 12, 1784, a Fellow of his college and Reader in Mineralogy, was a lecturer and somewhat of a humorist. Buckland’s fascination (aside from the fossil skeletons of pterodactyl that were being unearthed in cave deposits of the time) was in pebbles.
“No one,” he wrote, “should ever believe that the processes that produce and distribute pebbles is under any local influence. Eroded to pebble size and rounded by the tumbling action of water, and dispersed world wide, pebbles are proof in themselves of chaos, un-needing of verification (note 18).
1) Frank D. Stacey, Physics of the Earth, John Wiley and Sons, 1969
2) Composition of the earth and the moon as a percent (%) of mass, and rounded off. Source: Composition of the Earth
Iron (Fe) 32 9.0
Oxygen (O) 30 42.0
Silicon (Si) 16 20.6
Magnesium (Mg) 15 19.0
Calcium (Ca) 1.0 4.0
Aluminum (A) 1.0 4.0
Nickel (Ni) 2.0 1.0
Sodium (Na) 1.0 0.1
Sulfur (S) 2.0 0.3
3) National Geographic – The moon’s iron core – (suggesting) deep down, the moon may be more like Earth than scientists ever thought.
4) S. K. Runcorn: The moon’s magnetic field
5) S. K. Runcorn, “Corals as Paleontological Clocks”, Scientific American, Vol. 215, No. 4, Pg. 26-33. October 1966. (offprint 871), Pg. 583
6) The Apollo 11, 14 and 15 crews put laser reflecting stations on the moon that were later used by the University of Texas McDonald Laser Ranging Station to track the moon’s ever increasing orbit.
7) Dr. Benjamin Fong Chao, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Dr. Richard Gross of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. said all earthquakes have some affect on Earth’s rotation.
8) Sushel Unninayar & Kenneth H. Bergman, Modeling the Earth System in the Mission to Planet Earth Era, NASA July 1993, p 48 – 49
9) Seismologists at Northwestern University in Illinois have upgraded the quake to magnitude 9.3, three times bigger than previously thought and the second largest ever recorded
10) A magnitude 9.0 earthquake that struck off the west coast of the Indonesian Island of Sumatra on December 26, 2004 was the largest earthquake to occur in the world in 40 years. The earthquake generated a tsunami wave that spread across the Indian Ocean and devastated the coasts of Indonesia, south Asia, eastern Africa, and Madagascar.
11) “There has been a lot of movement over a distance of about 1,000 km with evidence there was several phases”
12) Cuvier was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology
13) Georges Cuvier, History of Geology, ISBN 0-405-10439-1
14) Georges Cuvier, “Essay on the theory of the earth,” Reprinted from a copy in
The University of Wisconsin Library, 87 pages.
15) The University of California Museum of Paleontology wrote :: “Without a doubt, Georges Cuvier possessed one of the finest minds in history. Almost singlehandedly, he founded vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline and created the comparative method of organismal biology, an incredibly powerful tool. It was Cuvier who firmly established the fact of the extinction of past life-forms. He contributed an immense amount of research in vertebrate and invertebrate zoology and paleontology, and also wrote and lectured on the history of science.”
Source :: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/feb/10/highereducation.research
16) (Modern theory of evolution): random heritable genetic mutations
Also wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution
17) evolution of life on earth is a fact substantiated
18) William Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae, 1820: Chorley, R. J. & Dunn, A. J., The History of the Study of Landforms, Methuen & Co. LTD. (1964), Pg. 102