There are many types of psychological theories in the professional sector, but they fall several general categories or approaches. Some of the approaches that these theorists fall under are biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, or humanistic. Some theorists that have emerged have also combined theoretical approaches. Although many of these theories can be categorized under the before mentioned categories there are many theories that are emerging that have great relevance in the psychological field. These approaches have a significant effect on the theorist main assertions and practices.
The famous theorist Charles Darwin falls under the biological approach. He purported that genetic traits that have been predominant and lasting have caused human beings to evolve through the process of “natural selection.”
Freud another famous theorist on the other hand was heavily involved in the psychodynamic approach therefore his main focus was on the conscious and unconscious behavior of individuals. He focused heavily on sexual drives and repression from the information he collected from observation and collected data. Nevertheless there are some theorists under the psychodynamic approach who have veered away from Freud to a certain degree. Some of these are Neo-Freudian theorist, such as Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, and Alfred Adler.
On the other hand theorist such as Wilhelm Wundt, William James and the famous Jean Piaget focused on the thinking process, but less on the unconscious. Therefore they took the cognitive approach. These theorist explained that individuals go through certain stages of learning that affect behavior.
Yet another approach, behavioral, purports that human beings a generally affected by environmental factors. For example, a child’s psychological makeup is influenced by experiences in the home or environment. Some of the most famous theorist who can be categorized under this approach is individuals such as B.F. Skinner and John Watson.
The last of these approaches is the humanistic. This approach is quite different from some of the other approaches because its focus veers from the other theories focus on facets that are beyond an individual’s control. It is mainly centered on the idea that a human being has choice, creativity, and personal responsibility. One of the more famous of the theorist that falls under this category is Abraham Maslow.
Lastly there are many theorists that have come to the forefront of the psychological field who are being labeled as emergent theorist. Many of these theories that are prevalent are use a combination of approaches to acquire results.
There are many psychological theories that have emerged over the years. Some have been popular until they have been supplanted or modified by new emerging theories. If anything, that is the one defining fact about psychological theories there is always a new development in the field. Nevertheless theorists throughout the world have had a tremendous impact on how we think about human behavior, measure intelligence, educate, and treat psychological disorders.
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Applying Educational Psychology-Myron H.Dembo