Water, which is the most abundant natural resource, is a binary compound made up of countless molecules, which can be explained as particles or tiny bits that come together to constitute chemical elements and certain compounds, in this case water. A water molecule may exist in the three states of matter; which are gaseous as water vapor; solid as ice blocks and liquid as water.
Peculiar Features and Make-up of a Water Molecule
A water molecule is V-shaped with a diameter of 2.75 Å and is also relatively small-sized compared to other molecules.
A typical water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms that are covalently joined to a single oxygen atom. And this is the combination which accounts for the chemical formula or representation of water as H2O (“H” for Hydrogen and the lower-cased “2” denoting the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom; single atoms are not denoted with figures when writing chemical formulas hence there is no number attached to “O” representing Oxygen).
Formation of a Water Molecule
A water molecule is formed when two hydrogen atoms and a single oxygen atom come together through the chemical process of covalent bonding. It is formed and bonded at a defined angle between 104 and 105 degrees; a characteristic or chemical property which makes all water molecules non-symmetrical – differing in size, shape and relative patterns or positions during reactions.
The covalent bonding that takes place between and among hydrogen and oxygen atoms during the formation of a water molecule is the reason why water is such a stable compound with strong molecular bonds.
When a covalent bond occurs in the formation of a water molecule, the two hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom share electrons among themselves, but in doing that the oxygen atom attracts more electrons than the Hydrogen atom, thus making the sharing unequal but vital nevertheless.
Bonding in the formation of water molecules does not only occur between hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but also among the same molecules. This happens when a single water molecule is attracted to and bonds with another but similar molecule; a scenario which is scientifically referred to as hydrogen bonding.
Properties of a Water Molecule
Water molecules have a number of intrinsic properties that are responsible for its behavior and qualities exhibited in the three states of matter. Water molecules are cohesively linked to one another and also rearrange themselves to adjust to differing situations.
A water molecule will expand when it freezes. Also, during freezing, water molecules rearrange themselves to minimize their energy; a property which enables ice to float.