Cocaine is a powder that is crystalline in nature. It is produced from the coca plant, and produces euphoric episodes. The side effects, however, are serious. Crack is cocaine that comes in a more rocky form. Once ingested, it produces a shorter, but more intense “high”. The “high” and the normal mood can often be confused with bi-polar disorders. Many cocaine and crack addicts claim to have true bipolar disorder in order to cover for the changes in their behavior, affect and mood.
Cocaine can be dissolved and mixed with water for injection. Powder cocaine is generally snorted or inhaled. Crack cocaine is commonly smoked. Sometimes, the cocaine is used in conjunction with, or mixed with other drugs to produce a more comprehensive or enhanced euphoria.
A “wildcat” is cocaine mixed with methcathinone. A “speedball” is cocaine and heroin. And cocaine can be mixed with marijuana for smoking. Alcohol and cocaine is the most commonly deadly combination.
There are two categories of cocaine disorder: Cocaine Use Disorder and Cocaine-Induced Disorder. Cocaine Use Disorder involves the disorders of dependence and abuse. Cocaine-Induced Disorder involves the specific disorders that result from extended or regular use of Cocaine, including: intoxication, withdrawal, intoxication delirium
Cocaine abuse is a function of about a year of regular use. Over that year, there will be developing antisocial, judgement and maladaptive behaviors. Increasingly risky and desperate measures are taken to obtain and use cocaine. Financial problems, loss of work, and criminal sanctions create destructive and catastrophic problems.
Cocaine dependence is abuse of three or more months and involves the two standards for substance dependence: tolerance and withdrawal. Withdrawal from cocaine dependency can be arduous and profound, leading to need for more cocaine and to more desperate and maladptave measures and behaviors in getting the substance.
Cocaine intoxication is a function of recent use and can include intense feelings of happiness, hypervigilance, sensitivity, irritability or anger .There is also impaired judgment, and anxiety. Eventually, the user can experience inability to function socially, at work or in the other normal functions of life.
Cocaine delirium involves evidence of the inability to concentrate or to pay attention, which are disturbances of consciousness or awareness. Thinking is affected, with problems with language and memory. Other diagnostic criterion include the delirium not being from dementia or from any other explanatory physical cause.
Cocaine Withdrawal includes irritable mood and at least two of the following: fatigue, nightmares, agitation, inability to sleep, increased appetite or retarded physical movements.
There are two psychotic disorders related to cocaine: One is with delusions and the other is with hallucinations. With the delusions, the individual believes what they believe, despite all the obvious evidence. But for a diagnosis, no other condition or substance can be the cause. With hallucinations, the same conditions apply to situations where the individual hears and sees unreal things.
There are several disorders that exist in other forms, but which are specifically related to cocaine induction: Anxiety, sleep disorder, sexual dysfunction and mood disorder. Mood disorder involves apathy, lack of empathy, and a flat affect, or inability to demonstrate a broad range of appropriate emotions.
The final category covers specific cocaine-induced disorders that are not otherwise specified.
Encyclopedia Of Mental Disorders: Cocaine Disorders