Process Theories of Motivationvroom Theory of Motivationadams Equity Theory

According to process theories of motivation, motivation is a cognitive rational process and concentrates on psychological and behavioral processes that motivate an individual. Main process theories include Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adams Equity Theory and Handy’s Motivation Calculus.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Individuals have their own goals which may be different from the overall organizations goals, however if these individual and organization goals are harmonized, considerably good results can be obtained. According to Victor Vroom a person’s motivation depends on three variables, which are Force, Valence and Expectancy. The force or strength of an individual preference depends on two factors namely Valence and Expectancy. Valence defines an individual’s strength for an outcome; if an individual desire for that outcome is strong he will put more effort. Expectancy is a person’s perception about the results which will be achieved from a certain behavior. This can be written as

Force /Instrumentality = Valence X Expectancy

Thus an individual effort or force depends on preference for a certain outcome and the expectancy that a certain behavior will result in that outcome. If both valence and expectancy for an out come are strong there will be more force and if any of these variables is less the force will be comparatively low.

Equity Theory

According to Equity theory a person judges his inputs to his outcomes with others in an organization. If an individual perceives that he is getting less output for his inputs as compared to others he will feel inequity and eventually will be de motivated. This inequity will be reduced by individual in different ways like reducing his inputs, by demanding increase in outputs in form of increase in salary etc. Inequity may be positive or negative. One main factor to be considered is that many people overestimate others reward and there own contribution or inputs. Inequity may be tolerated for a short period but if it exists for a longer period it may cause a serious impact on individual’s motivation, his work quality and overall output of an organization.

Handy’s Motivation Calculus

This theory is similar to Vroom’s expectancy theory. Here an individual outcome depends on strength of a need, his expectancy that a certain behavior or effort will result in his desired result and how effectively the result achieved will satisfy his need.

In order to keep an organization staff motivated and productive based on process theories there must be good communication between workers and management. Every individual must be provided feedback for his work, intended results must be communicated and finally all individual’s salary must be related to their performance, to decrease sense of inequity.