Bladder is the organ in the pelvis which will collect and hold urine till such time it is ready to be expelled by means of contracting the bladder wall. It will collect urine draining from the kidneys through the two ureters and will expel urine from the bladder through the urethra, which is a passage opening into the outside through the urethral meatus. In a healthy individual, although the contraction of the bladder is involuntary and reflective in nature, the person would be able to hold on without passing urine through voluntary actions.
What are the indications to perform bladder surgery?
Among the indications, the most common would be the surgeries done to replace the bladder position as in the case of bladder prolapse and cystectomy procedures performed in instances of removing bladder tumors. In bladder prolapse, the patient may be suffering from urinary incontinence, frequent urine infections…etc and the idea of performing the surgery will be to raise the bladder back to its original position and strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor as to prevent future prolapse. When removing a bladder tumor, part of the bladder wall may come out which may change the bladder integrity, its response to fullness and therefore the way it reacts. Besides these types of surgeries, the bladder will be handled during other surgeries pertaining to the pelvis as well.
What are complications related to surgeries in the bladder?
Following bladder surgery, it may become irrational in being sensitive to urine and may try to contract far earlier than before. This may give rise to a feeling of incontinence or frequency depending on the extent of the surgery. It is sometimes referred to as an overactive bladder which may be the result of a ‘partial cystectomy’ in case of bladder tumor removal.
While the bladder gets lifted and re-positioned during a surgery for prolapse, other organs in the pelvis can shift its location which could lead to prolapse of such organs instead of the bladder.
Inability to pass urine is another complication following bladder surgery and this may cause the bladder to distend more than to its usual volume and therefore give rise to many other symptoms which could pose a threat to the surgery which was performed.
If bladder surgery gives rise to residual urine or poor passage of urine, it may cause bacteria to colonize within the bladder or else in the urethra which may give rise to recurrent urinary tract infections. Thus, in such instances, the patient may have to be on prophylactic antibiotics for a prolonged period which can sometimes be lifelong as well.
Apart from these, one should understand that, patients undergoing bladder surgeries are also susceptible to develop other complications related to any surgery or anesthetic technique during or after the surgical procedure.