Plants use glucose in a variety of ways that are essential to their growth and survival. Glucose aids in overall growth, allows for respiration through the cell walls and is also stored for future use in the roots, as well as in the form of seeds. Glucose is essentially energy for the plant in a carbohydrate form that can be used immediately or stored in the form of starches for later use. It is crucial to the growth and survival of the plant as it directly effects the production of cellulose, the material plants use to construct cellular walls.
Glucose is initially formed through the act of photosynthesis, which is how plants use water and carbon dioxide to produce energy. From this combination of carbon dioxide and water, a carbohydrate is formed which is initially used in the leaf structure for a variety of purposes. Under the right conditions, plants can create an excessive amount of glucose, and it is then stored in various ways throughout the plant structure. It is through this process that the plant produces oxygen, as well, and the glucose present in the cell walls of the leaves aids in expelling this gas by acting as an immediate form of energy.
Any glucose that isn’t immediately used by the plant for cell function, such as the building of cellular walls, is either stored or converted. Glucose is the primary building block of cellulose in the plant and is vital for cell production. The construction of additional cellular walls drives the growth of the plant and the larger it becomes, the more efficient the plant becomes at photosynthesis. Leftover glucose reacts with nitrates found in the leaves and produces amino acids, which are also essential to growth. Every bit of glucose is either used or stored, from the very point of production through photosynthesis, to its conversion into starches and reproductive use.
For storage purposes, glucose created through photosynthesis is converted into starches which are stored all throughout the plant. Starches themselves may be converted into energy within the root system or can be used to produce seeds. A plant is essentially a glucose production and storage system from the very tips of the leaves to the roots within the ground. As glucose is produced, it feeds the plant and is then gradually converted into various other nutrients that are crucial to the plant’s survival, growth and eventual reproduction.