There are many theories held by astrophysicists and astronomers which attempt to answer the question of how a black hole is created. To give a very simplified definition of an extremely complex astronomical object, as defined by Wikipedia: “A black hole is a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape.” This brief definition is basically what is actually known about black holes.
Einstein and Hawking have contributed to the currently accepted theories of black holes, based on the theory of an expanding Universe filled with dark energy and dark matter. Another view of the Universe which has many adherents, is one filled with aether and vortexes, first proposed by Rene Descartes.
The scientists who are sure they have the answer to how a black hole is created, or almost have it, are actually speculating. They do not have enough historical evidence-astronomy as a science using the telescope has only been around since Galileo studied Jupiter and its moons with his telescope in 1609, and Herschel peered through it to discover galaxies, which he called nebulae, in 1790. The other evidence they have that black holes even exist are based on the telescopic images from the modern Hubble telescope which reveal that from what they can now see, each galaxy has a black hole at its center.
The most popularly accepted theory of black hole creation is that of a rapidly spinning neutron or pulsar star collapsing in on itself as it burns up its nuclear core to form a black hole. The dying star must have a mass of at least 20 times greater than the Sun. As it burns up its nuclear fuel it starts spinning rapidly, emitting radio waves which seem to be pulsing, thus the name pulsar. It creates a tremendous gravitational tug from which not even light can escape. Then the core compacts into a mathematical point with virtually zero volume, where it is said to have infinite density. This is referred to as a singularity. When this happens, escape would require a velocity greater than the speed of light. No object can reach the speed of light. The distance from the black hole at which the escape velocity is just equal to the speed of light is called the event horizon. Anything, including light, that passes across the event horizon toward the black hole is forever trapped.
However, that is just one possibility of how a black hole may be created. The vortex theory holds that there are gravitational forces within the ether that have powerful magnetic attraction to form galaxies around them. The center of each galaxy is thought to contain a super massive black hole. Throughout the universe galaxies have the same spiral shape. A few have bars, thought to be spirals not yet formed, and irregular galaxies, believed to have once been spiral but ripped apart by a collision with another galaxy. It seems too coincidental that every galaxy seen from the most powerful telescope has the same shape, and the spiral is a shape that repeatedly shows up in every natural formation of colliding forces, such as tidal waves after tsunamis, tornados and cyclones.
Galileo proposed his principle of relativity, Galilean Invariance in 1632, in which he stated that the principles of physics are the same in all frames of reference. Einstein expanded upon Galileo’s ideas in his Special Theory of Relativity in which the speed of light became the universal frame of reference. The General Theory of Relativity (1915) predicted that a body of sufficient mass will deform the space around it. In 1916, German physicist Karl Schwarzschild found a correlation between Einstein’s General Relativity Theory and the curvature of light which occurred as it traveled by a massive body in space. Following in the same linear thinking Stephen Hawking theorized the black hole was inescapable once anything material crossed its event horizon. Thirty years later in 2003 he reversed his thinking and presented a paper wherein he stated a black hole could dissolve and burp up what had been swallowed.
The above is a very brief, simplified summary of the black hole, which is generally accepted, or has been embraced by the mainstream scientific community, although there is a sizeable group of physicists and astronomers who do not agree with this theory of the creation of the black hole at all. The main cause of the split is because the dominant modern scientific community has swept into a corner and dismissed the older theories of the vortex (vortices) and the ether (aether) as proposed by great minds, one of the most renowned being Rene Descartes, a French philosopher-mathematician who published his Principia Philosophiae (Principles of Philosophy) in 1644. He brilliantly postulated three kinds of matter or elements: a non-particle fluid moving so rapidly that it shattered what it hit and produced heat and light; a second type made up of microscopic spherical particles, making a stable fluid, which fills space and propagates light (aether) (the two properties of light, particle and wave. puzzle scientists today and are as yet unexplained); the third element of which planets and common objects are formed, made of larger particles least well-suited to motion.
In other words the vortex-ether theory postulated by the early philosopher-mathematicians predicted and predated the black hole and dark matter theories which have been built upon the thoughts of the early cosmologists. The problem is that the modern scientific community apparently does not want to give them credit and admit that they are building their new theories upon the earlier ones. Rather than point out the similarity of the vortex to the black hole, and the ether to dark matter, they ignore the similarities to the theories of the earlier philosopher-scientists, no doubt due to the ever present human ego. The modern physicists and astronomers who are not mainstream scientists claim that the older classical physics pre Newton are correct and better explain cosmology.
What is especially interesting about this situation, is that the vortex and ether theories, while dismissed by the North American/European astrophysicists community, are promulgated by many well educated and perceptive scientists worldwide, including many Russian scientists. Russia, who put up the first cosmonaut into space, Yuri Gagarin, has not only kept up with the United States in the space race, but now has to lend their space shuttles to NASA to ferry American astronauts to and from the International Space Station. Obviously the Russians have a good grasp of physics.
As an example of Russian thinking is this paper by Sergey Orlov, an engineer at the Petrozavodsk State University on “Foundation of Vortex Gravitation and Cosmology,” (October, 2010 rev) which discusses vortex gravitation and how his theory may be applied to conserving energy in future outer space flights. According to this novel theory of the principle of vortex gravitation vortices pre-exist in the ether. The ether is a material which compresses and flows (as in the fluid dynamics of the early ether theory), and a vortex’s forces of gravitation attract dust, gas, and matter to itself and form a galaxy. Thus a super massive black hole forms the galaxy around it from matter it attracts through gravitation.
So there is a substantial amount of disagreement among the members of the scientific community, many of them dismissing the Big Bang Theory as impossible and instead embracing classical physics and the theories of vortices and the ether. The other side of the scientific community is aligned with the Big Bang Theory and the collapsing of pulsar and neutron stars as the basis for black hole formation. Thus, how a black hole is created remains unanswered.