Gestalt Theory

Gestalt theory focused on the mind’s perceptive processes. The word “Gestalt” has no direct translation in English, but refers to “a way a thing has been gestalt; i.e., placed, or put together; common translations include, “form” or “shape”. Gestalt theorists follow the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In viewing the “whole”, a cognitive process takes place – the mind makes the leap from comprehending the parts to realizing the whole.

This theory was originated and builds by psychologists from Germany and Austria; Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka around 1910 to 1930. These members of psychology begin to build concept based on pattern found in human habits. We are influenced by the gestalt psychological perception because it gives solid proof on how eyes organized visual experiences.This focuses on two important aspects in human perception towards visual, which are by parts and whole:

The parts of a visual image may be considered, analyzed, and evaluated as distinct components The whole of a visual in nature is different from any greater than the sum of its parts

For example when you look at photographs of landscape you might consider the hills, sky, Sunset, Lake, and trees as elements to be separately admired. Yet taken together they form a coherent whole of unified beauty, each part to the other. Another example is the poster maybe analysed as a recipe of illustration, headline type, and text type. When these communication elements are placed together they reinforce one another building a pattern that “glues” the whole.

Gestalt theory also explains about observation process. This research focused on observation towards figures. The research was regarding perceptual organization problem. It creates a series of research and demonstration regarding observation phenomenon.

Gestalt psychologists made analysis to determine the way humans seen form or shapes. For the psychologists, this means something. It means there exists differences in shape or when the shape becomes more than one, or in a group. It is also means that humans are attracted to see thing that change. Changes to your main modification. Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka proved that humans do not see shapes and forms in their actual condition. Shipments see shapes and forms of the day had been modified. The modification here involves the assumption process.

Audience will react to overt or obvious gestalt patterns. By making a target audience with selected high impact gestalt images can shorten the distance to effective communications. Gestalt imagery can be photographic, symbolic, typographic, if you start if or combination of these.

Open gestalts are particularly useful for graphic pieces, which rely on quick exposure like posters, magazine, book covers and television graphics. To work with gestalt principles in visual imagery is to deal with basic human response, the nature of visual activity of the human organism.