The word geography literally means “to study the earth” and this is exactly what it entails-collecting and analyzing data pertaining to the essential workings of the earth and using this data to produce ideas and philosophies related to these workings.  It covers a broad range of subjects that synergistically analyze the properties of the earth and its relationship with the universe in the most scientifically logical manner available to man.  There are two basic categories of geography: Physical and Human.  This separates the field into areas of study focusing on the earth’s fundamental planetary mechanisms and the anthropological impact on the planet respectively.  Geography is such a broad topic that generally it needs to be broken up into more specific subcategories to get an informative synopsis of what it entails.

The physical aspect can be subdivided into more specific areas of study.  These subjects include natural resources, remote sensing, morphology, meteorology, climatology and other areas related to the physical composition and mechanisms of the planet.  This branch of geography focuses specifically on the physicality of the earth and the mapping of these landscapes; from its surface landforms-mountains, faults, lakes, rivers, oceans, etc. – to resources and mechanisms operating below the surface under immense pressure and temperature. 

Another aspect of geography would be human related geography.  This branch includes cultural studies and population studies.  Studying cultures and population trends enable countries and companies to gain an important overview of areas significant to their progression.  Analyzing such things as population gives us a basis for important policy decisions regarding the construction of places like hospitals, police stations, and fire stations.  It can provide upgraded information for companies when determining a location for their building where market access will be the greatest.  Programs like Geographic Information Systems(GIS) can map population data related to income levels, disease rates, and other important medical and social statistics that can be so helpful in the enhancement of a society when implementing policies and infrastructure.

Geography has such a wide range of applications.  Mapping of physical and anthropological data is so important for governments, companies, and institutions in their understanding of how to improve themselves.  The ability to have a visually enhanced, easy to understand picture of the area of interest allows policy makers and CEO’s to make better decisions for the people and their businesses.  Geography will continue to be a helpful tool in our culture in enabling us to outlay landscapes and locations for better understanding of our planet and society.